Quality of western Canadian mustard 2023

This report presents harvest quality data for western Canadian mustard grown in 2023. Mustard samples were submitted to the Canadian Grain Commission’s Harvest Sample Program by producers and grain companies. Quality data is compiled from the results of analytical tests performed by the Oilseeds program staff from the Grain Research Laboratory.

ISSN 1498-9905

Summary

In 2023, the mean oil content for No. 1 oriental, brown and yellow mustard (36.9%, 33.4% and 26.3%, respectively) was higher than last year (35.5%, 33.0% and 25.4%, respectively) but lower than each corresponding 10-year mean (Figures 6, 7, and 8). In contrast, the mean protein content for No.1 oriental, brown and yellow mustard (29.4%, 31.2% and 35.2%, respectively) was lower than last year for oriental mustard (30.3%) and similar to last year for brown and yellow mustard (31.2% and 35.2%, respectively). In addition, the mean protein content in 2023 was higher than the 10-year mean for oriental and brown mustard but lower than the 10-year mean for yellow mustard (Figures 6, 7 and 8). The total glucosinolate content for No. 1 oriental mustard was 135 micromoles per gram (µmol/g) of seeds, 131 µmol/g of seeds for No. 1 brown mustard and 147 µmol/g of seeds for No. 1 yellow mustard. These values are higher than the 10-year means of 122 µmol/g of seeds (oriental) and 112 µmol/g of seeds (brown) (Figure 9). The 10-year mean for total glucosinolate content in yellow mustard was not calculated as we started reporting data in 2020. However, for yellow mustard, the 2023 total glucosinolate content was slightly lower than that observed in 2022 (150 µmol/g of seeds) and similar to the 3-year average (146 µmol/g of seeds). Oil, protein and total glucosinolate content are reported on a dry matter basis in this report.

Introduction

This report presents harvest quality data for oriental (Brassica juncea), brown (Brassica juncea), and yellow (Sinapis alba) mustard grown in western Canada in 2023 (Figure 1).

Figure 1  Mustard grown in western Canada
a pile of Oriental mustard seeds on a white background

Oriental mustard (Brassica juncea)

a pile of brown mustard seeds on a white background

Brown mustard (Brassica juncea)

a pile of yellow mustard seeds on a white background

Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba)

Figure 2 shows the estimated 2022 mustard production in metric tonnes (MT) by Small Area Data Regions from Statistics Canada. The map shows that the main mustard growing areas are southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan.

Figure 2  Estimated mustard production by Small Area Data Regions for 2022
Estimated mustard production by Small Area Data Regions for 2022
Source

Statistics Canada.

Seeding and growing conditions

Below normal temperatures in April and spring snow storms delayed seeding over the entire mustard growing region. Dry and warm conditions in May, however, allowed seeding to proceed quickly. Although seeding started later than the 5-year average date, most of the mustard crop in Saskatchewan (94%) was in the ground in by the end of May. Warmer than normal temperatures occurred in June, while July and August had near normal average temperatures. In some areas, July nights were cold with temperatures in single digits, which lowered the daily averages. Timely rain (localized thundershowers) benefitted the crop during the growing season. Moisture was an issue again this year, however, since the growing season began with abnormally dry conditions (Figure 3) and ended with some mustard growing areas experiencing extreme drought (Figure 3). In Saskatchewan, the mustard harvest began in early August and ended at the end of September, similar to last year (Figure 5). In Alberta, most of the mustard crop (98.8%) was harvest by October 3. Some scattered rain occurred during the harvest, but the mustard harvest progressed without long interruptions for most producers (Figure 5).

More detailed information can be found at:

Information on the temperature and precipitation patterns from the 2023 growing season in western Canada can be obtained from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

Figure 3  Drought intensity in Canada

May 31, 2023

map

August 31, 2023

map
Source

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Production and grade information

In 2023, the estimated production of mustard in western Canada was 170,710 metric tonnes (MT), higher than the 2022 production (161,781 MT), the 5-year (2018 to 2022) mean (126,103 MT) and the 10-year (2013 to 2022) mean (146,361 MT) (Figure 4). The increase this year was due to an increase in hectares (ha) seeded with mustard (257,800 ha in 2023 versus 224,500 ha in 2022) (Figure 4). The estimated yield in western Canada decreased this year compared to last year, with 681 kilograms per hectare (kg/ha) produced in 2023 compared to 740 kg/ha in 2022. The estimated yield was 708 kg/ha (717 kg/ha in 2022) in Saskatchewan and 592 kg/ha (801 kg/ha in 2022) in Alberta. These yields are much lower than the 5-year means (812 kg/ha in Saskatchewan and 774 kg/ha in Alberta) and much lower than the 10-year means (903 kg/ha in Saskatchewan and 897 kg/ha in Alberta). Saskatchewan accounted for 73.1% (72.6% in 2022) of western Canada’s total area seeded with mustard and 73.0% (71.1% in 2022) of western Canada’s mustard production while most of the remaining seeded area and production were in Alberta (Figure 4). Some mustard was grown in Manitoba, but it represented less than 1% of the hectares seeded with mustard in western Canada. All production data is available from Statistics Canada.

In 2023, 66.4% of all mustard samples received by the Harvest Sample Program were graded Domestic Mustard Seed No. 1, Canada. This is slightly higher than what was recorded in 2022 (64.6%) and higher than the 5-year and 10-year means of 61.1% and 62.6%, respectively. The highest percentage of samples graded No. 1 were brown mustard (70.9% in 2023 versus 70.3% in 2022), followed by oriental mustard (69.4% in 2023 versus 78.9% in 2022). Samples of yellow mustard had the most damage and only 56.6% of the samples were graded No. 1 in 2023 (58.8% in 2022). In 2023, the main downgrading factors were green seeds (31.9% of the samples had distinctly green seeds), conspicuous admixture (23.4% of the samples had inseparable seeds) and sprouting (18.6% of the samples had seeds with a ruptured seed coat and a sprout). Sprouting damage was observed only in brown mustard samples. Among the brown mustard samples, 59.8% showed sprouting but only 12.6% of samples were downgraded due to sprouting severity.

Figure 4  Seeded area and production of mustard in western Canada from 2000 to 2023
Area seeded with mustard and production of mustard in western Canada from 2000 to 2023
Area seeded with mustard and production of mustard in western Canada from 2000 to 2023
Source

Statistics Canada
Table 32-10-0359-01 Estimated areas, yield, production, average farm price and total farm value of principal field crops, in metric and imperial units

Figure 5  Progress of mustard harvest in Saskatchewan from 2020 to 2023
Progress of mustard harvest in Saskatchewan from 2020 to 2023
Graph data
Harvest progress
Year Date Progress (%)
2023 October 2 99
2023 September 25 96.7
2023 September 11 81.8
2023 September 4 68
2023 August 28 55
2023 August 21 26.9
2023 August 14 7.6
2023 August 7 0.5
2022 October 3 99
2022 September 26 97
2022 September 19 88
2022 September 12 79
2022 September 5 65
2022 August 29 46
2022 August 22 28
2022 August 15 0
2021 September 27 99
2021 September 21 96
2021 September 13 86
2021 September 6 74
2021 August 30 57
2021 August 23 38
2021 August 16 28
2021 August 9 5
2020 September 28 99
2020 September 21 96
2020 September 14 87
2020 September 7 73
2020 August 31 53
2020 August 24 35
2020 August 17 14
2020 August 10 1

Harvest samples

In 2023, the Harvest Sample Program received 295 mustard samples from producers and grain companies, more than in 2022 (246), higher than the 5-year mean (223) and the 10-year mean (281). We analyzed 123 yellow (136 in 2022), 83 brown (91 in 2022) and 58 oriental (19 in 2022) mustard samples. Most of the samples (74.6%) came from Saskatchewan (67.9% in 2022), 22.7% came from Alberta (29.3% in 2022) and 2.7% came from Manitoba (2.8% in 2022). Individual samples were cleaned to remove dockage and were graded by grain inspectors, following Chapter 12 of the Official Grain Grading Guide.

The Canadian Grain Commission used a FOSS NIRSystems 6500 NIR spectrometer, calibrated to and verified against the appropriate listed reference methods, to determine the oil and protein content of all individual whole-seed samples. The total glucosinolate content was determined on individual brown and oriental mustard samples using NIR spectroscopy and all composite samples were analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatography reference method. All oilseed method and test procedures are detailed on our website.

Composite samples were prepared for each province by combining samples of each type graded No. 1 and by combining lower grade samples (No. 2, No. 3, No. 4 and Sample) of each type for western Canada. Variety composites were also prepared by combining the most common mustard varieties using only samples graded No. 1. Composites were analyzed for oil, protein, total glucosinolates, and chlorophyll content, as well as fatty acid composition.

Quality of the 2023 mustard crop

The mustard crop grown in western Canada in 2023 had the general characteristics of a well matured crop but showed some stress due to warm and dry growing conditions. Historical data from the Harvest Sample Program indicate that warm and dry growing conditions tend to produce an oilseed crop with higher protein and lower oil content. Scientific literature also suggests that total glucosinolate levels increase in rapeseed when crops are exposed to dry conditions after flowering.

Oil, protein and total glucosinolate content

Table 1 contains a summary of the 2023 data for oil, protein and total glucosinolate content in oriental, brown and yellow mustard samples according to grade. Comparisons of the quality of oriental, brown, and yellow mustard from previous years can be found in Figures 6, 7 and 8.

Oriental mustard graded No. 1 had a mean oil content of 36.9%, higher when compared to 2022 (35.5%) but much lower than the 5-year mean (38.1%) and 10-year mean (40.4%). The mean protein content was noticeably lower in 2023 (29.4%) when compared to 2022 (30.3%) but higher than the 5-year mean and 10-year mean (29.0% and 27.4%, respectively) (Figure 6). The oil content ranged from 32.5% to 43.7% (32.7% to 38.9% in 2022) and the protein content ranged from 24.4% to 32.8% (27.3% to 33.2% in 2022) (Table 1).

Brown mustard graded No. 1 also had a mean oil content (33.4%) that was higher when compared to 2022 (33.0%) but lower than the 5-year mean and 10-year mean (34.4% and 35.9%, respectively). The mean protein content in 2023 (31.2%) was identical to that in 2022 but higher than the 5-year mean and 10-year mean (30.3% and 29.0%, respectively) (Figure 7). The oil content ranged from 29.9% to 39.2% (27.6% to 40.6% in 2022) and the protein content ranged from 26.6% to 34.2% (23.8% to 34.1% in 2022) (Table 1).

Yellow mustard is characteristically lower in oil and higher in protein than oriental and brown mustard (Table1). The mean oil content of yellow mustard graded No. 1 was higher in 2023 (26.3%) than in 2022 (25.4%) but lower than the 5-year mean (26.6%) and 10-year mean (28.3%). The mean protein content in 2023 (35.2%) was identical to the 2022 mean and higher than the 5-year mean (34.6%) and significantly higher than the 10-year mean (33.1%) (Figure 8). The oil content ranged from 22.8% to 28.5% (22.4% to 32.8% in 2022) and the protein content ranged from 28.6% to 40.0% (28.5% to 40.1% in 2022) (Table 1).

The mean total glucosinolate content of oriental mustard graded No. 1 was135 µmol/g of seeds, lower than the 2022 mean (143 µmol/g of seeds) and higher than the 5-year mean and the 10-year mean (130 µmol/g of seeds and 122 µmol/g of seeds, respectively). The mean total glucosinolate content of No. 1 brown mustard was lower in 2023 than in 2022 (131 µmol/g of seeds versus 143 µmol/g of seeds) but higher than the 5-year mean and the 10-year mean (119 µmol/g of seeds and 112 µmol/g of seeds, respectively). The mean total glucosinolate content of yellow mustard seed graded No. 1 was 147 µmol/g of seeds, similar to the 2022 mean and 2021 mean (150 µmol/g of seeds and 147 µmol/g of seeds, respectively).

In 2023, there was a decrease in the mean protein content for oriental mustard (-0.9%) compared to 2022, whereas the mean protein content for brown and yellow mustard was relatively unchanged compared to 2022. All three types of No. 1 mustard had a higher mean protein content in 2023 than their corresponding 5-year mean and 10-year mean. The opposite was observed for oil content, with all the 2023 means being higher than those in 2022 (+1.4%, +0.4% and +0.9% for oriental, brown and yellow mustard, respectively) but lower than their corresponding 5-year mean and 10-year mean.

The increased oil content associated with decreased protein content in 2023 suggests that the 2023 growing season had overall lower temperatures than last year’s growing season. Mean temperatures in July were lower than normal for most of Saskatchewan and only about 2°C higher than normal for most of Alberta. Nevertheless, the number of days over 30°C from April 1 to July 31 was somewhat higher in 2023 than in 2022. The main difference between the 2023 and 2022 growing seasons was the low night temperatures (single digits) experienced in July in most of the prairies. It is likely that these low night temperatures helped the mustard crops recover from the heat of the day, leading to an increase in oil content.

Data on the chlorophyll content of oriental, brown and yellow mustard samples from 2023 is contained in Table 2. For No. 1 oriental and brown mustard, the chlorophyll content was 0.9 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) (1.4 mg/kg in 2022) and 2.4 mg/kg (3.2 mg/kg in 2022), respectively (Figure 10). The chlorophyll content of No. 1 yellow mustard was similar to that observed in 2022 (0.7 mg/kg in 2023 versus 0.8 mg/kg in 2022) (Figure 10 and Table 2).

Fatty acid composition

Table 2 contains the fatty acid composition data for brown, oriental and yellow mustard samples received in 2023.

The oil of yellow mustard had more oleic acid (C18:1) and erucic acid (C22:1) than the oils of brown and oriental mustard. Concurrently, the amount of linoleic acid (C18:2) and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3) was higher in brown and oriental mustard oils than in yellow mustard oil. The mean erucic acid content of No. 1 yellow mustard oil was 32.1% (33.5% in 2022), while the mean erucic acid content of brown and oriental mustard oils was 22.3% and 21.6%, respectively (22.3% and 20.7% in 2022, respectively). This resulted in a higher iodine value for the oil of yellow mustard (102.0 units in 2023 versus 101.4 units in 2022) and lower iodine values for the oils of brown mustard (117.7 units in 2023 versus 118.8 units in 2022) and oriental mustard (116.1 units in 2023 versus 116.8 units in 2022). The mean total saturated fatty acids levels ranged from 5.5% (yellow mustard oil) to 6.5% (oriental and brown mustard oils).

The erucic acid content of mustard seeds (g/kg) was calculated using the relative fatty acid composition of the oil and the oil content of the seeds. The results presented in Table 2 showed that in 2023, the erucic acid content of seeds ranged from 0.45 g/kg to 0.99 g/kg for No.1 western Canadian mustard.

There were some varietal differences in the distribution of fatty acids in the mustard samples. Cutlass oil contained more erucic acid and less oleic acid than Forge oil. The same trend was observed when comparing the oils of Centennial Brown and AAC Brown 18. The oil of Andante samples from Saskatchewan contained less oleic acid and more erucic acid than the oil of Andante samples from Alberta (25.6% versus 26.8% for oleic acid and 34.1% versus 32.7% for erucic acid). The total amount of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, however, was the same (73.1%). The oil of AAC Yellow 80 contained more oleic acid and less erucic acid than Andante oil.

Free fatty acid (FFA) content is an indicator of seed stress and oil degradation. In 2023, the mean FFA content of No. 1 mustard was low (0.05% to 0.14%), similar to what was observed in 2022 (0.06% to 0.13%). Samples of No. 1 brown mustard showed sprouting damage, but the mean FFA content of brown mustard was not statistically different from No. 1 oriental mustard. This suggests that sprouting was not the main parameter affecting FFA content. As in 2022, the 2023 brown mustard samples received by the Harvest Sample Program were from southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, where hot and dry conditions prevailed during most of the growing season. The high FFA content observed in the samples may be due to heat stress.

Table 1  Oil, protein and total glucosinolateFootnote 1 content of 2023 western Canadian mustard

Domestic Mustard Seed, Oriental, Canada
Grade Location Number of samples Oil contentFootnote 2(%) Protein contentFootnote 3(%) Glucosinolate content (µmol/g)Footnote 4
Mean MinFootnote 5 MaxFootnote 6 Mean Min Max Mean Min Max
No. 1 Canada 44 36.9 32.5 43.7 29.4 24.4 32.8 135 113 164
No. 1 Saskatchewan 40 37.2 32.5 43.7 29.2 24.4 32.8 135 113 134
No. 1 Alberta 4 34.4 33.8 36.1 31.7 30.9 32.4 139 133 160
No. 2 Canada 11 38.1 32.9 42.8 29.4 25.5 31.6 125 58 156
No. 3 Canada 3 38.5 35.5 40.6 30.1 28.4 31.3 129 122 138
Cutlass, No. 1 Canada 25 37.6 32.5 43.7 28.9 24.4 32.0 134 113 142
Forge, No.1 Canada 9 35.8 33.0 38.2 30.3 28.3 32.8 137 123 164
Domestic Mustard Seed, Brown, Canada
Grade Location Number of samples Oil content (%) Protein content (%) Glucosinolate content (µmol/g)
Mean Min Max Mean Min Max Mean Min Max
No. 1 Canada 68 33.4 29.9 39.2 31.3 26.6 34.2 131 86 139
No. 1 Manitoba 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
No. 1 Saskatchewan 64 33.5 29.9 39.2 31.1 26.6 33.7 130 86 139
No. 1 Alberta 4 31.6 30.2 37.1 33.2 28.4 34.2 146 113 138
No. 2 Canada 10 35.1 33.0 37.8 29.7 26.8 31.8 125 81 134
No. 3 Canada 5 33.6 31.0 35.7 31.3 30.2 32.3 130 120 134
AAC Brown 18, No. 1 Canada 12 34.3 29.9 39.2 30.4 26.6 33.6 133 111 137
Centennial Brown, No.1 Canada 34 32.9 29.9 38.8 31.6 27.4 34.2 138 110 139
Domestic Mustard Seed, Yellow, Canada
Grade Location Number of samples Oil content (%) Protein content (%) Glucosinolate content (µmol/g)
Mean Min Max Mean Min Max Mean Min Max
No. 1 Canada 72 26.3 22.8 28.5 35.2 28.6 40.0 147 n/a n/a
No. 1 Saskatchewan 42 26.7 23.1 30.7 34.7 28.6 38.7 143 n/a n/a
No. 1 Alberta 30 25.7 22.8 28.5 36.0 31.5 40.0 152 n/a n/a
No. 2 Canada 24 25.6 23.1 26.9 36.0 29.3 39.6 150 n/a n/a
No. 3 Canada 12 25.5 22.2 27.6 36.3 29.3 39.6 153 n/a n/a
No. 4 Canada 10 28.0 24.4 26.3 33.4 28.3 37.5 140 n/a n/a
Sample Canada 5 28.4 24.1 25.7 33.5 31.4 37.6 147 n/a n/a
Andante, No. 1 Canada 41 25.6 22.8 30.7 35.8 28.6 40.0 148 n/a n/a
Andante, No. 1 Saskatchewan 22 25.3 23.1 30.7 36.0 28.6 38.7 150 n/a n/a
Andante, No. 1 Alberta 19 25.9 22.8 28.5 35.6 33.0 40.0 146 n/a n/a
AAC Yellow 80, No. 1 Canada 7 27.1 25.0 29.5 35.5 33.3 38.6 142 n/a n/a

Table 2  Relative fatty acid composition of the oil, chlorophyll content, free fatty acid content and erucic acid content of 2023 western Canadian mustard

Domestic Mustard Seed, Oriental, Canada
Grade Location Relative fatty acid composition (%)Footnote 7 Iodine value
(units)
Chlorophyll content (mg/kg) FFA (%) C22:1 (g/kg)Footnote 8
C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C22:1 Total SFAFootnote 9
No. 1 Canada 22.0 22.9 11.0 21.6 6.5 116.1 0.9 0.11 0.45
No. 1 Saskatchewan 21.9 22.7 11.0 21.8 6.5 115.9 0.9 0.11 0.46
No. 1 Alberta 23.2 24.4 11.0 19.6 6.7 117.4 1.0 0.21 0.37
No. 2 Canada 21.1 22.2 11.8 22.6 6.3 116.9 2.5 0.15 0.49
No. 3 Canada 19.0 21.7 13.1 24.5 5.7 119.0 4.5 0.29 0.58
Cutlass, No. 1 Canada 21.1 22.2 11.3 22.7 6.5 115.9 1.1 0.10 0.49
Forge, No.1 Canada 24.3 24.1 10.3 19.4 6.7 116.1 0.4 0.12 0.36
Domestic Mustard Seed, Brown, Canada
Grade Location Relative fatty acid composition (%) Iodine value
(units)
Chlorophyll content (mg/kg) FFA (%) C22:1 (g/kg)
C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C22:1 Total SFA
No. 1 Canada 20.9 21.7 12.3 22.3 6.5 117.7 2.4 0.14 0.48
No. 1 Saskatchewan 21.1 21.7 12.5 22.2 6.5 117.6 2.4 0.14 0.47
No. 1 Alberta 18.3 21.4 13.9 23.9 6.0 120.0 2.5 0.17 0.55
No. 2 Canada 26.1 23.2 13.0 16.7 6.9 120.2 1.4 0.10 0.27
Sample Canada 26.3 24.1 13.3 15.6 7.2 121.5 4.3 0.11 0.23
AAC Brown 18, No. 1 Canada 24.9 23.0 12.9 18.0 6.8 119.8 2.7 0.14 0.31
Centennial Brown, No. 1 Canada 20.0 21.3 12.5 23.3 6.4 117.2 2.2 0.13 0.52
Domestic Mustard Seed, Yellow, Canada
Grade Location Relative fatty acid composition (%) Iodine value
(units)
Chlorophyll content (mg/kg) FFA (%) C22:1 (g/kg)
C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C22:1 Total SFA
No. 1 Canada 27.5 10.3 10.0 32.1 5.5 102.0 0.7 0.05 0.99
No. 1 Saskatchewan 28.4 10.4 9.9 31.1 5.5 102.0 0.8 0.05 0.93
No. 1 Alberta 26.2 10.2 10.1 33.4 5.4 102.0 0.5 0.05 1.08
No. 2 Canada 25.9 10.0 10.5 33.6 5.3 102.5 0.9 0.07 1.09
No. 3 Canada 27.3 10.1 10.5 32.2 5.3 102.8 1.1 0.07 1.0
No. 4 Canada 27.3 10.0 10.6 32.1 53 102.9 3.3 0.16 0.99
Sample Canada 28.6 10.3 10.5 30.6 5.5 103.1 2.6 0.12 1.00
Andante, No. 1 Canada 26.2 10.2 10.1 33.4 5.4 101.9 1.1 0.06 1.08
Andante, No. 1 Saskatchewan 25.6 10.2 10.2 34.1 5.4 101.9 1.4 0.06 1.12
Andante, No. 1 Alberta 26.8 10.3 10.0 32.7 5.5 101.8 0.7 0.07 1.08
AAC Yellow 80, No. 1 Canada 31.9 10.8 9.8 27.3 5.7 102.6 0.3 0.05 0.72
Figure 6  Oil and protein content of oriental Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Oil and protein content of oriental Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Graph data
Oil and protein content of oriental Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Year Oil content (%, dry basis) Protein content (%, dry basis)
2023 36.9 29.4
2022 35.5 30.3
2021 34.9 31.4
2020 40.0 27.6
2019 41.4 26.8
2018 38.8 29.2
2017 40.5 27.5
2016 42.4 25.8
2015 43.2 25.3
2014 42.7 25.5
2013 44.9 24.2
2012 41.4 26.4
2011 43.5 25.2
2013 to 2022 mean 40.4 27.4
Figure 7  Oil and protein content of brown Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Figure description follows
Graph data
Oil and protein content of brown Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Year Oil content (%, dry basis) Protein content (%, dry basis)
2023 33.4 31.2
2022 33.0 31.2
2021 32.4 31.7
2020 35.5 29.3
2019 35.7 29.3
2018 35.2 30.0
2017 35.9 29.3
2016 37.0 28.0
2015 37.4 27.7
2014 37.9 26.8
2013 39.5 26.3
2012 36.7 27.6
2011 38.8 26.9
2013 to 2022 mean 36.0 29.0
Figure 8  Oil and protein content of yellow Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Figure description follows
Graph data
Oil and protein content of yellow Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Year Oil content (%, dry basis) Protein content (%, dry basis)
2023 26.3 35.2
2022 25.4 35.2
2021 25.0 36.6
2020 27.6 33.1
2019 27.6 33.3
2018 27.3 34.7
2017 27.1 34.5
2016 30.4 30.5
2015 29.5 32.3
2014 30.7 30.9
2013 32.3 29.6
2012 29.3 31.9
2011 31.6 30.6
2013 to 2022 mean 28.3 33.1
Figure 9  Total glucosinolate content of oriental, brown and yellowFootnote 10 Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Figure description follows
Graph data
Total glucosinolate content of oriental, brown and yellow Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest
Year Oriental mustard (µmol/g, dry matter) Brown (µmol/g, dry matter) Yellow (µmol/g, dry matter)
2023 135 131 147
2022 143 143 150
2021 143 132 147
2020 126 109 141
2019 109 101 n/a
2018 126 111 n/a
2017 118 108 n/a
2016 117 106 n/a
2015 117 112 n/a
2014 109 99 n/a
2013 108 96 n/a
2012 117 105 n/a
2011 113 100 n/a
2013 to 2022 mean 122 112 146.1
Figure 10  Chlorophyll content of oriental, brown and yellow Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Figure description follows
Graph data
Chlorophyll content of oriental, brown and yellow Domestic Mustard Seed, No.1 Canada from 2011 to 2023 harvest samples
Year Oriental mustard (mg/kg) Brown mustard (mg/kg) Yellow mustard (mg/kg)
2023 1.0 2.4 0.7
2022 1.4 3.2 0.8
2021 0.4 1.7 0.6
2020 1.0 2.7 0.9
2019 1.1 2.9 0.7
2018 1.2 2.2 0.7
2017 1.2 1.7 0.7
2016 2.9 6.5 1.2
2015 1.7 4.4 0.8
2014 2.4 2.9 0.9
2013 1.5 2.8 0.6
2012 2.1 2.5 1.0
2011 1.6 3.2 0.6
2013 to 2022 mean 1.5 3.1 0.8

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the mustard producers and grain handling facilities in western Canada for supplying samples of the 2023 mustard harvest. We also thank the Industry Services division of the Canadian Grain Commission for grading the Harvest Sample Program samples and the Grain Research Laboratory staff for conducting the analyses and preparing this report.