Quality of Canadian oilseed-type soybeans 2022

Introduction

The two major types of soybeans grown in Canada are:

  • those commonly referred to as oilseed-type soybeans (“crush” or non-food grade)
  • food-grade soybeans (used for tofu and other soy products)

This report deals with oilseed-type soybeans, which are used in the crushing industry and in animal feed production. Oilseed-type soybeans are grown to produce oil and high-protein meal. Soybean oil is used in oil-based salad dressing, shortening and margarine products. The defatted soybean meal, which is protein rich, is used to supplement livestock rations.

The Canadian soybean production area has expanded in recent years and crops are now grown from the Maritimes through to Saskatchewan (Figure 1).

At the end of the 2022 harvest, 256 samples of oilseed-type soybeans had been received by the Harvest Sample Program, much less than in 2021 (333 samples). The 2022 samples originated from Saskatchewan (7), Manitoba (90), Ontario (131), Quebec (24), and the Maritimes (4). Of the submitted samples, 20% were graded Soybean, No. 1 Canada , whereas 80% were graded Soybean, No. 2 Canada.

Quality data (oil, protein, free fatty acid, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition) for oilseed type soybeans are based on the means of No. 1 and No. 2 soybean composite samples. This includes all samples received from western Canada (Manitoba and Saskatchewan), eastern Canada (Ontario and Quebec) and the Maritimes (New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island). Table 1 compares 2022 data to 2021 data, as well as to the 5-year mean. Oil and protein content are provided on a dry basis and on a 13% moisture basis. Quality data according to province for No. 1 and No. 2 soybean composites are presented in Tables 3 and 4.

Table 1  Quality data for 2022 and 2021 Canadian oilseed-type soybeans plus the 5-year means according to grade
Grade Quality parameter 2022 2021 2017 to 2021 mean
Soybeans, No. 1 Canada and Soybeans, No. 2 Canada Oil content (%, dry basis) 22.0 22.3 21.7
Oil content (%, 13% moisture) 19.1 19.4 18.9
Protein contentFootnote1 (%, dry basis) 38.9 38.6 38.7
Protein content (%, 13% moisture) 33.8 33.6 33.7
Defatted meal protein of the meal (%, 13% moisture) 43.4 43.3 42.8
Chlorophyll content (mg/kgFootnote2 in seed) 0.5 0.4 0.4
Free fatty acids Footnote3 (%) 0.13 0.07 0.13
Oleic acid (% in oil) 20.3 21.8 20.6
Linoleic acid (% in oil) 54.5 53.8 54.4
α-Linolenic acid (% in oil) 8.7 8.2 9.0
Total saturated fatty acids Footnote4 (% in oil) 15.5 15.4 15.3
Iodine value (units) 135.0 133.6 135.7

Figure 1  Soybean production areas in Canada

Soybean production areas in Canada

This map shows the regions, from west to east: Prairies, Ontario, Québec and Atlantic, where soybean is now a crop grown countrywide. (Source: Soy Canada)

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