Rye: Grading factors
Full list of grading factors
- Broken (BKN)
- Contaminated grain
- Degermed kernels (DGM)
- Earth pellets
- Ergot (ERG)
- Excreta (EXCR)
- Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)
- Fireburnt (FBNT)
- Foreign material (FM)
- Fusarium damage (FUS DMG)
- Heated kernels (HTD)
- Matter other than cereal grains (MOTCG)
- Odour (ODOR)
- Other cereal grains excluding wheat (OCGXWHT)
- Rotted (ROT)
- Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)
- Smudge (SM)
- Soft earth pellets (SEP)
- Sprouted kernels (SPTD)
- Stones (STNS)
- Treated seed and other chemical substances
- Wheat (WHT)
Broken kernels are pieces of rye that are less than three-quarters of a whole kernel.
- If the broken kernel has been chewed by insects, it is also considered as broken for grading purposes as long as no mould is evident on the exposed endosperm.
- If the broken kernel has mould on exposed endosperm, it is graded relative to the degree of soundness.
- In samples graded Rye, Sample Canada Western (CW)/Canada Eastern (CE) Account Broken or Rye, Sample Broken Grain, handpick any broken rye removed in cleaning but remaining on top of the number 4.5 round-hole hand sieve. Return it to the cleaned sample.
- For reporting and grading, round down the percentage by weight of broken rye in the cleaned sample to a whole number; for example, 4.9% becomes 4%.
Important: Wear gloves and a mask to handle any sample that is suspected of containing contaminated grain.
Contaminated is defined in the Canada Grain Act as; “Contaminated means, in respect of grain, containing any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is unfit for consumption by persons or animals or is adulterated within the meaning of the regulations made pursuant to sections B.01.046(1), B.15.001 and B.15.002(1) of the Food and Drugs Act.”
Determination as to whether grain is contaminated will be made by the Grain Research Laboratory in consultation with the Chief Grain Inspector for Canada. Samples deemed to be contaminated are graded Rye, Sample Condemned.
Degermed kernels (DGM)
- Are considered Sprouted if the sample contains other sprouted kernels
- Are considered sound if the sample contains no other sprouted kernels
Ergot is a plant disease producing elongated fungal bodies with a purplish-black exterior, a purplish-white to off-white interior, and a relatively smooth surface texture.
Excrement from any animal including mammals, birds and insects.
Important : Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain excreta.
Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)
Fertilizer pellets are a manufactured plant nutrient product used by producers in the production of grain. They are typically small, round or irregular shaped and usually white, grey, brown, pink or reddish in colour.
Note: Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for procedures to be followed when handling samples containing fertilizer pellets.
- Handpick any fertilizer pellets and determine the concentration basis the net working sample.
- Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when the concentration does not exceed 1.0% of the net sample weight.
- Samples containing fertilizer pellets in excess of 1.0% of the net sample weight are graded Rye, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Fireburnt kernels are charred or scorched by fire. A cross-section of a fireburnt kernel resembles charcoal with numerous air holes. The air holes result in a low-weight kernel which crumbles easily under pressure.
Foreign material (FM)
Foreign material in rye includes all material other than whole or broken rye that remains in the sample after the removal of dockage.
Fusarium damage (FUS DMG)
Fusarium-damaged kernels in rye are chalk-like in appearance and frequently have a fibrous growth in the kernel crease. Rye has a shallow crease and therefore the fibrous growth is frequently removed during handling.
Separate all kernels showing any evidence of fusarium damage, including any kernels that have a chalk-like appearance. Apply the following guidelines.
Fusarium-damaged kernels includes
- Chalk-like kernels in combination with a fibrous mould
- Chalk-like kernels without the fibrous mould if the mould is present on other chalk-like kernels in the sample
Do not include
- Chalk-like kernels without the fibrous mould if there are no other chalk-like kernels with mould in the sample
Heated kernels (HTD)
Heated kernels are red or orange, and have the odour typical of grain that has deteriorated in storage or has been damaged by artificial drying. Heated rye is not easily detected because of the natural colour variations that occur in sound rye.
Rotted kernels are included in the tolerance for Heated.
Heated seeds of other grains are included in the tolerance for Heated.
Matter other than cereal grains (MOTCG)
Matter other than cereal grains includes the following material remaining in the cleaned sample:
- Seeds such as ragweed, Tartary buckwheat, rye grass, wild oats
- Non-cereal domestic grains such as flaxseed, corn, peas, buckwheat or lentils
There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider
- The basic quality of the sample
- The type and degree of the odour
- The presence of visible residue causing the odour
|If odour is the grade determinant and there is:||Then the grade is:|
|A distinct, objectionable odour, not associated with the quality of the grain, but not heated or fireburnt||Rye, Sample CW/CE Account Odour|
|A distinct, heated odour||Rye, Sample CW/CE Account Heated|
|A distinct, fireburnt odour||Rye, Sample CW/CE Account Fireburnt|
Other cereal grains excluding wheat (OCGXWHT)
Other cereal grains, excluding wheat in rye are barley, triticale, oats and groats, including wild oat groats. For wheat, refer to Wheat.
For grading purposes, spelt and Kamut® are considered as Other cereal grains in samples of rye.
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus producing hard masses of fungal tissue, called sclerotia. The sclerotia vary in size and shape, have a course surface texture, vary in exterior color from dark black to gray to white and have a pure white interior.
Smudge describes the discolouration caused by disease. The dark kernels often found in rye are similar in appearance to wheat kernels which has been affected by blackpoint or smudge.
When grading, consider the incidence and severity of the discolouration. There is no specific numeric tolerance. This factor is considered under Degree of soundness, as defined in the Primary Grade Determinants tables.
Soft earth pellets (SEP)
Soft earth pellets are
- Earth pellets that crumble into fine dust under light pressure, using a finger only—if they do not crumble, they are considered Stones.
- Any non-toxic material of similar consistency
- Handpick soft earth pellets from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
- Soft earth pellets constituting 10.0% or less of the sample are assessed as dockage.
- Where soft earth pellets represent more than 10% of the net weight, the sample is graded Rye, Sample CW/CE Account Admixture.
Sprouted kernels (SPTD)
Sprouted kernels show definite signs of germination. Degermed kernels are considered sprouted when the sample contains other sprouted kernels. See Degermed.
Important: Kernels with long sprouts which clean out over the number 25 or number 1 riddle are either
- Included in dockage, as described in Composition of dockage
- Returned to the sample and become a grading factor, in samples graded Rye, Sample CW/CE, Account Sprouted
Stones are hard shale, coal, hard earth pellets, and any other non toxic materials of similar consistency. Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when constituting 1.0% or less of the net sample weight. (See Fertilizer pellets for specific procedures to be followed when samples contain fertilizer pellets.)
- Handpick stones from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
- Determine stone concentration in the net sample.
- In western Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of “basic grade” tolerances, up to 2.5% are graded Rye, Rejected “basic grade” Account Stones. The “basic grade” refers to a grade established in the Canada Grain Regulations (grades listed in the first column in grade determinant tables) that would have been assigned to the sample if it contained no stones.
- In eastern Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of grade tolerances are degraded to lower grades. Samples containing stones in excess of the tolerance of the lowest grade established by regulation up to 2.5% are graded Rye, Sample Canada Eastern Account Stones.
- In western and eastern Canada grain containing more than 2.5% stones is graded Rye, Sample Salvage.
Examples: Western Canada
Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Rye, Canada Western Grade name Stones % number 1 CW 0.03 number 2 CW 0.03 number 3 CW 0.06
- Basic grade: Rye, number 2 CW
- Reason for basic grade: Mildew
Grade in Western Canada if stones found. If the above sample contained Grade in western Canada 0.05% stones Rye, Rejected number 2 CW Account Stones 1.00% stones Rye, Rejected number 2 CW Account Stones 3.00% stones Rye, Sample Salvage
Examples: Eastern Canada
Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Rye, Canada Eastern Grade name Stones % number 1 CE 0.03 number 2 CE 0.03 number 3 CE 0.06
- Basic grade: Rye, number 2 CE
- Reason for basic grade: Mildew
Grade in Eastern Canada if stones found. If the above sample contained Grade in eastern Canada 0.05% stones Rye, number 3 CE 1.00% stones Rye, Sample CE Account Stones 3.00% stones Rye, Sample Salvage
Test weight (TWT)
Test weight is the weight of a measured volume of grain expressed in kilograms per hectolitre. For procedures, see Chapter 1 of this guide, Determining test weight.
Treated seed and other chemical substances
Treated seed is grain that has been coated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes. These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The current Canadian colour standards for pesticide seed treatments are: cereals–pink or red, canola–baby blue or green. Seed treated with an inoculant may have a green stain. The coatings or stains may appear greasy or powdery and surface area distribution ranges from tiny flecks to complete coverage.
Other chemical substances
Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.
Important: Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain contaminated grain
If a sample is suspected of being coated with a pesticide, desiccant, inoculant or if the sample contains evidence of any foreign chemical substance other than fertilizer pellets, the sample shall be graded Rye, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Note: Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for specific procedures to be followed when handling samples suspected of containing treated seed or other chemical substances
Rye is graded without reference to variety.
Wheat is considered foreign material in rye.
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