Setting and changing grades
Grain grades in Canada are set or changed only after careful consideration and research. While the system is flexible enough to meet the changing needs of producers, industry and customers, it is also stable and reliable.
The Canadian Grain Commission sets standards and specifications for grades of grain based on recommendations from the standards committees. There are 2 grain standards committees, one representing eastern Canada and the other representing western Canada.
The grain standards committees receive information and expertise from the grain standards advisory committees for specific crops, including wheat, barley, oilseeds and pulses.
Grade change process
1. Concern brought forward
Anyone can bring forward a concern about grading, a quality issue or any specification in the Official Grain Grading Guide by contacting a standards committee member, an advisory committee member, or the Canadian Grain Commission. The grain standards committee or advisory committee member brings the item forward for discussion at the appropriate advisory committee's meeting.
2. Grain standard advisory committee discussion and scientific study
The advisory committee discusses the potential impact a change would have on the grain industry and the customers of Canada's grain. The advisory committee decides if further study is required. If so, the advisory committee seeks input from stakeholders and arranges for scientific research where necessary.
3. Grain standard advisory committee decision
Once consultation and research are complete, results are brought back to the advisory committee for further discussion and consideration. At this point, the advisory committee may:
- ask for more evaluation
- choose not to support the proposed change
- recommend that the relevant standards committee support the proposed change
4. Committee discussion and decision
The Eastern Standards Committee and/or Western Standards Committee discusses the recommendation and does one of the following:
- requests more evaluation
- decides not to support the recommendation
- decides to support the recommendation
If the committee supports a recommendation to change a particular grade or specification, the Canadian Grain Commission will carefully consider the recommendation before making the change in the Official Grain Grading Guide.
5. Grading change announced
Any change made to current grading specifications is announced well in advance of the new crop year in order to give the grain industry, including producers, time to adjust to any change.
Example: Fusarium-damaged kernels
Adjustments to tolerances for Fusarium-damaged kernels in wheat were made in 2011.
Fusarium damage results in thin or shrunken, chalk-like kernels. It is caused by Fusarium graminearum, a fungus that infects wheat. Fusarium graminearum contains deoxynivalenol (DON), which is toxic to both humans and animals.
Tolerances for Fusarium-damaged kernels were adjusted because research conducted by the Canadian Grain Commission found that a new strain of Fusarium graminearum contained more deoxynivalenol than other strains. This meant that the relationship between Fusarium damage and levels of deoxynivalenol was no longer accurate. Tolerances needed to be adjusted so that wheat shipments continued to meet customer tolerances.
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