Method for the Remix Bake Method

Method owner: Program Manager, Bread Wheat Research, Grain Research Laboratory
Effective date: 2016-08-30, version 4

1.0 Scope and Field of Application

This method is applicable for untreated flour experimentally or commercially milled for the production of yeast raised bread. It provides a test which ranks flours according to baking strength. The remix-to-peak test bake method was most recently used to assess breeder lines submitted to the Canadian variety registration trials and showing potential for the Canada Prairie Spring Red, Canada Western Red Winter and Canada Western White Spring classes. It was replaced in 2015 by the GRL-developed lean no time test bake method because of the newer method’s improved discrimination of inherent dough strength.

2.0 Principle

The remix-to-peak baking test is a modification of the remix baking test of Irvine and McMullan (1960), as described in detail by Kilborn and Tipples (1981). Dough is mixed to peak consistency at the second mixing stage. Dough is mixed in a Swanson type 100-200 gram pin mixer (National Manufacturing Co., Lincoln NE) at 90 rpm. Loaves are produced from 200 grams of flour in baking pans with cross-sectional dimensions similar to Canadian commercial baking pans. Loaf volume is reported on a 100-gram flour basis.

3.0 References

  • Irvine, G.N. and McMullan, M.E. 1960. The “remix” baking test. Cereal Chem. 37:603-613.
  • Kilborn, R.H. and Tipples, K.H. 1981. Canadian test baking procedures. I. Grain Research Laboratory Remix method and variations. Cereal Foods World. 26:624-628.

4.0 Materials

This list details materials used by the Bread Wheat Research unit of the Grain Research Laboratory (GRL). Small modifications, depending on laboratory resources, can be acceptable.

4.1 Lab ware

  1. Laboratory glassware of various types and sizes including beakers, graduated cylinders, reagent bottles and volumetric flasks
  2. Bottle top dispensers – Dispensette with variable volume; 0.5-5 mL, 1-10 mL and 5-50 mL
  3. Metal tins, 250 mL, with lids
  4. Magnetic stir bars
  5. Timers
  6. Thermometer/Hygrometer combo

4.2 Equipment and Apparatus

  1. Circulating water bath (Lauda, Ecoline)
  2. Pin-type mixer (National Mfg. Co.)
  3. Warming/resting cabinet (Grain Research Laboratory)
  4. Sheeter (Grain Research Laboratory)
  5. Moulder (Grain Research Laboratory)
  6. Fermentation cabinet (National Mfg. Co.)
  7. Electric reel oven (National Mfg. Co.)
  8. Cooling rack
  9. Volscan Profiler 300 (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK)
  10. Electronic balances
  11. Stir plate
  12. Baking crocks with lids
  13. Loaf pans (200 g). Approximate dimensions of pans currently being used at the Grain Research Laboratory:
Grain Research Laboratory in-house pans (Volume: 1,120 ml)
Pan Dimensions in centimeters Length Width Depth
Top Outside 17.9 12.4 7.3
Top Inside 16.7 11.3
Bottom Outside 14.2 9.1 7.1
Bottom Inside 13.5 8.6
Grain Research Laboratory in-house pans (Volume: 1,120 ml)
Pan Dimensions in centimeters Length Width Depth
Top Outside 7 478 278
Top Inside 658 438
Bottom Outside 558 358 234
Bottom Inside 514 338

5.0 Formula and Ingredients

5.1 Formulation

(% flour weight)
Yeast 3.0%
Salt 1.0%
Sugar 2.5%
Potassium bromate 15 ppm
Ammonium phosphate 0.1%
Malt 0.6%
Flour 100%

5.2 Ingredients

  1. Yeast, compressed, commercial
  2. Salt, noniodized fine sodium chloride, commercial grade
  3. Sucrose, fine granulated, commercial grade
  4. Potassium bromate, reagent grade
  5. Ammonium phosphate, monobasic, reagent grade
  6. Malt syrup or other form (60°L)
  7. Flour
  8. Distilled water, reverse osmosis

6.0 Solutions

6.1 Yeast suspension (3% flour weight basis)

Note: Prepare a fresh solution every time you bake.

  1. Weigh 60 g of freshly crumbled yeast and add about 150 mL distilled water.
  2. Stir to make a suspension.
  3. Bring to 250 mL with distilled water in a volumetric flask.
  4. Transfer the solution with a magnetic stirrer to a 1 L dispensing bottle fitted with a 50-mL variable pump dispenser set and calibrated to dispense 25 mL.
  5. Keep stirring the solution until the required volume for each sample has been dispensed.

6.2 Salt (4.0% w/v) and sugar (10% w/v) solution (1.0 and 2.5% of flour weight, respectively)

  1. Weigh 110 g sugar and 44 g salt into a beaker and add 1018 mL distilled water.
  2. Stir until dissolved
  3. Store for up to one week in a 1 L dispensing bottle fitted with a 50-mL variable pump dispenser set and calibrated to dispense 50 mL.

6.3 Bromate (0.15% w/v) – phosphate (10% w/v) solution (15 ppm and 0.1% of flour weight, respectively)

  1. Weigh 1.5 g potassium bromate and 100 g ammonium phosphate into a beaker and add about 500 mL distilled water.
  2. Stir until dissolved
  3. Bring to 1 L with distilled water in a volumetric flask.
  4. Store for up to 1 month (if the solution becomes cloudy, discard) in a 250-mL dispensing bottle fitted with a 5-mL variable pump dispenser set and calibrated to dispense 2 mL.

6.4 Malt solution

  1. Weigh the appropriate amountFootnote 1 of malt and add about 100 mL distilled water.
  2. Stir well to obtain a uniform consistency.
  3. Bring to 200 mL with distilled water in a volumetric flask.
  4. Transfer to a 250 mL dispenser bottle fitted with a 5-mL variable pump dispenser set and calibrated to dispense 2 mL.
  5. Store at 4°C for up to one week.

7.0 Procedure

7.1 Equipment and Labware Set-up

Note: Set up equipment 45-60 mins before starting. Throughout the procedure, verify that all equipment is running properly.

  1. Turn on the circulating water bath, set at 25°C to circulate through the mixing bowl jacket.
  2. Remove the mixing bowl from the pin mixer.
  3. Turn the mixer on and allow the mixer to run (90 rpm) to warm up and equilibrate before calibration and set up of the P2M software.
  4. Turn on the proofer (4.2.6) with temperature setting at 30°C and 83% RH.
  5. Turn on the warming (resting) cabinet, set to 30°C (no humidity control).
  6. Turn on the oven and set to 425°F (218°C).
  7. Verifiy if there is a need to calibrate the moulder weight and if the moulder belt requires tightening (this step can be ignored if not using a Grain Research Laboratory moulder).
  8. Grease baking pans and place them inside the warming cabinet.

7.2 Sample Preparation

Note: Include at least one blank and one control flour sample every time.

  1. Prepare one bake record per sample. Record sample number (sample ID), bake date, bake method, moisture content (if this value is old, a new moisture content should be taken), and farinograph absorption (14% mb).
  2. Use a baking schedule to track the processing time for each sample.
  3. Weigh 200 g flour (corrected to 14 % moisture basis) into a 250-mL metal tin with lid (pre-weigh all flour samples in advance before starting the first mix and place into numbered tins, each number corresponding to the sample number).
  4. Weigh 6 g shortening (must be at room temperature) and add into each metal tin containing the pre-weighed flour sample (can be done the day before).
  5. Cover the metal tins until ready to mix.

7.3 Mixing

  1. Place the flour sample into the 200-g National mixer bowl.
  2. Create a depression in the centre by pushing some of the flour to the sides of the bowl.
  3. In a 600 mL beaker, weigh the amount of distilled water required for bake absorption (see Appendix 1 for factors to consider).
  4. To the water, dispense 50 mL salt-sugar solution (6.2), 2.0 mL malt baking solution (6.4), 2.0 mL bromate-phosphate solution (6.3) and 25 mL yeast suspension (6.1).
  5. Pour the combined solutions into the depressed centre of the flour sample in the mixer bowl.
  6. Stop the mixer warm up.
  7. Secure the bowl onto the mixer.
  8. Start and run the mixer for 3.5 minutes at a speed of 90 rpm.

7.4 Proofing

  1. Remove the dough from the mixer bowl and pins.
  2. Round the dough lightly seven times by hand.
  3. Place the dough into the appropriately numbered and greased baking crock and cover with the metal lid.
  4. Put the covered baking crock with dough into the proofer for 2.75 hours.

At this point, remaining samples can be mixed following a baking schedule.

7.5 Remxing

  1. A few (about 5) minutes before remixing, prepare the P2M software.
  2. After proofing, transfer the dough from the baking crock into the mixer bowl.
  3. While the dough is mixing, grease the baking crock, balance pan and your hands.
  4. Mix the dough to 10% past peak (the P2M software will indicate this by moving the red line to peak).
  5. Once the optimum peak is reached, immediately stop the mixer and the P2M software.
  6. Remove the dough from the mixer bowl and mixer pins and place on the greased balance pan.
  7. Immediately place a thermometer into the dough.
  8. Record the dough temperature.
  9. Record the weight on the baking schedule and in the P2M software.

7.6 Proofing

  1. Round the dough lightly seven times.
  2. Place the dough back into the baking crock.
  3. Put the crock with the dough into the proofer for 25 minutes.

7.7 Sheeting and Moulding

  1. Remove the crock from the proofing cabinet.
  2. Dust the countertop with flour.
  3. Remove the dough from the crock and dust the surface by rolling it onto the flour-dusted countertop. Tap any excess flour off the dough.
  4. With the underside (rough edge) of the dough facing toward you, sheet the dough one pass through gap #1 (set at 11/32 inch). As the dough passes through the gap, catch it as it exits from underneath.
  5. Place the dough on the moulder belt and adjust the sheeter gap to #2 (set at 7/32 inch).
  6. Sheet the dough one pass through gap #2. As the dough passes through gap #2, catch it as it exits from underneath.
  7. Place the dough on the moulder belt and adjust sheeter gap to #3 (set at 5/32 inch).
  8. Sheet the dough one pass through gap #3. As the dough passes through gap #3, catch it as it exits from underneath.
  9. Place the bottom of the dough sheet so it is lying on the moulder belt closest to the roller. Gently stretch this end to make it “square” (leading edge parallel to the moulding rolls) then manually create a roll by rolling the dough edge up and towards you 3 times.
  10. Lift the dough and place the rolled end into the rollers.
  11. Drop the top roll onto the dough piece.
  12. Start the moulder and guide the dough sheet into the rolls. The dough will mould for 30 seconds (automatic timer).

7.8 Panning

  1. In a pre-warmed greased baking pan, put an appropriately numbered, full-length label face down in the bottom of the pan.
  2. Remove the dough roll from the moulder and place it on the countertop.
  3. Manually evaluate the stickiness by touching each end with your index fingers.
    1. If the dough sticks to your fingers but recovers to original form, the bake absorption is considered acceptable.
    2. If the dough is sticky and does not recover to original form, make a note to decrease the water absorption for the next replicate.
    3. If the dough does not stick to your fingers, it is considered too dry. Make a note to increase water absorption for the next replicate.
  4. Place the dough roll into the greased baking pan so that it is pushed to one side and the seam is straight and facing down (by doing this, the break and shred on the bread will be on one side only, making it easier to evaluate).
  5. With flour dusted fingers. Tuck the ends of the loaf under.

7.9 Proofing

  1. Place the pan with dough into the proofer.
  2. Proof for 55 minutes.

7.10 Baking

  1. Transfer the pan with dough in the rotary oven.
  2. Bake for 30 minutes at 218°C (425°F).
  3. Remove the pan from the oven and remove the loaf from the pan.
  4. Immediately weigh the loaf, then place it on the baking rack to cool.

7.11 Loaf Evaluation

  1. After one hour, measure the loaf volume using the Volscan Profiler 300 or other volume measurement device.
  2. Record the loaf top ratio (LTR) using the maximum height (mm) and maximum width (mm) measurements from the Volscan Profiler 300. Calculation: LTR = (maximum height – 70) / maximum width. The number 70 is the inside depth in mm of the Grain Research Laboratory-manufactured 200 g pans. If using a different pan, with a different inside pan depth value, adjust this calculation accordingly. LTR can also be measured using a height gauge.
  3. Optional: Digital crumb images may be taken (e.g. C-Cell measurements) and when required, loaf and crumb photographs may be taken.

8.0 Appendix 1: Factors to consider in calculating bake absorption

  1. Bake absorption = Farinograph absorption + X%; adjustments are made based on subjective assessment by the baker of the dough just before panning.
  2. Adjust (+/-) for difference in water resulting from flour weight correction to 14% moisture basis.
  3. Adjust for displacement of water in fresh yeast solution – calculate this displacement in-house or use the information provided in AACC International Method 10.10-03
  4. Adjust for displacement of water in sugar-salt solution – calculate this displacement in-house.
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