Quality of western Canadian mustard 2016 - Quality of domestic mustard seed: Oriental and Brown

Quality of domestic mustard seed: Oriental and Brown

Oil, protein and total glucosinolate content for oriental and brown mustard is summarized by grade in Table 2. Comparisons to previous years’ data are in Figures 2, 3 and 5.

Mean fixed oil content (42.4%) in Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada was lower than the mean in 2015 (43.4%) (Figure 2). Meanwhile, mean crude protein content (25.8%) was higher than the 2015 mean (25.3%) (Figure 2). Fixed oil content in samples of Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 36.9 to 47.4%, whereas protein content ranged from 22.3 to 31.2% (Table 2).

Figure 2, Oriental Mustard, No.1 Canada
Oil and protein content of harvest samples, 2006 to 2016

Oil and protein content of Oriental Mustard, No.1 Canada harvest samples, 2006-2016
  • Figure 2 details
    Oil and protein content of harvest samples, 2006 to 2016
    Content 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2006-2015, mean
    Oil content, % 41.8 37.6 42.0 43.4 43.4 43.5 41.4 44.9 42.7 43.2 42.4 42.4
    Protein content, % 26.6 28.6 27.1 26.3 26.2 25.2 26.4 24.2 25.5 25.3 25.8 26.1
Table 2, Quality of 2016 western Canadian mustard: Oriental and Brown
Grade No. of samples Oil content %Footnote1 Protein content %Footnote2 Glucosinolate content
µmole/gFootnote3
Mean Min. Max. Mean Min. Max. Mean Min. Max.
Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Oriental
No. 1 W. Canada 45 42.4 36.9 47.4 25.8 22.3 31.2 117 56 145
Saskatchewan 40 42.3 36.9 47.4 26.0 22.3 31.2 118 56 145
Alberta 5 43.9 38.9 46.2 24.8 22.6 28.1 111 83 125
No. 2 31 41.7 37.0 46.1 26.4 22.2 31.4 121 104 140
No. 3 15 40.2 36.2 44.5 27.9 23.5 30.8 124 109 147
No. 4 4 39.6 38.8 41.6 28.0 26.9 29.3 130 124 143
Sample 6 41.5 39.1 44.6 25.5 24.1 27.9 113 98 121
Cutlass, No. 1 20 42.7 37.4 47.3 26.0 22.3 31.2 115 56 130
Forge, No. 1 19 41.3 36.9 44.3 25.8 22.9 30.0 126 108 145
Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Brown
No. 1 W. Canada 34 37.0 34.5 40.5 28.0 25.1 31.2 106 89 114
Saskatchewan 33 37.0 34.5 40.5 27.9 25.1 31.2 106 89 114
Alberta 1 35.7 - - 28.7 - - 105 - -
No. 2 5 37.5 35.0 40.7 27.6 23.9 31.9 100 93 102
No. 3 1 34.5 - - 27.5 - - 93 - -
No. 4 3 38.1 35.6 41.8 27.0 24.2 29.4 89 66 114
Sample 3 35.6 35.3 38.8 26.3 23.8 28.1 110 91 141
Centennial Br., No. 1 20 37.3 35.2 39.8 27.7 25.7 31.2 105 89 109

Mean fixed oil content (37.0%) in Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada was slightly lower than the mean in 2015 (37.4%). Meanwhile, mean crude protein content (28.0%) was slightly higher than the 2015 mean (27.7%) (Figure 3). Fixed oil content in samples of Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 34.5 to 40.5% while the protein content ranged from 25.1 to 31.2% (Table 2).

Figure 3, Brown Mustard, No.1 Canada
Oil and protein content of harvest samples, 2006 to 2016

Oil and protein content of Brown Mustard, No.1 Canada harvest samples, 2006-2016
  • Figure 3 details
    Oil and protein content of harvest samples, 2006 to 2016
    Content 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2006-2015, mean
    Oil content, % 39.8 36.5 38.8 40.2 39.6 38.8 36.7 39.5 37.9 37.4 37.0 38.5
    Protein content, % 26.0 27.7 27.6 27.1 27.5 26.9 27.6 26.3 26.8 27.7 28.0 27.1

Total glucosinolate content in Oriental Mustard, No.1 Canada was 117 µmole/g, a value lower than in 2015 at 127 µmole/g (Figure 5). The value for Brown Mustard, No.1 Canada was also lower than the value for 2015, 106 versus 112 µmole/g (Figure 5). Total glucosinolate content in samples of Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 56 to 145 µmole/g. Total glucosinolate content in samples of Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 89 to 114 µmole/g (Table 2).

Figure 5, Oriental and Brown Mustard, No.1 Canada
Total glucosinolate content of harvest samples, 2006 to 2016

Total glucosinolate content of Oriental and Brown Mustard, No.1 Canada harvest samples, 2006 to 2016
  • Figure 5 details
    Total glucosinolate content of harvest samples, 2006 to 2016
    Glucosinolate content 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2006-2015, mean
    Oriental, µmole/g 131 143 124 119 123 113 117 108 109 127 117 121
    Brown, µmole/g 108 114 113 112 111 100 105 96 99 112 106 107

Fatty acid composition of oriental and brown mustard composites is provided in Table 3. Erucic acid (C22:1) levels for Oriental Mustard, No.1 Canada (21.9%) and Brown Mustard, No.1 Canada (23.8%) were similar to the 2015 values of 22.3% and 23.6% respectively. These values for oriental and brown mustard are typical of Brassica juncea condiment mustards.

Table 3, Fatty acid composition of 2016 western Canadian mustard: Oriental and Brown
Category No. of samples Fatty acid composition (%)Footnote4 Saturated
fatty acidsFootnote5
Iodine
value
C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C22:1
Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Oriental
No. 1 W. Canada 45 1.5 21.7 22.0 12.7 21.9 6.0 119
Saskatchewan 40 1.5 21.9 22.1 12.7 21.7 6.0 119
Alberta 5 1.5 20.4 21.1 12.9 23.2 5.8 118
No. 2 31 1.5 20.3 21.6 13.0 23.1 5.8 119
No. 3 15 1.4 18.8 21.8 13.3 24.0 5.9 120
No. 4 4 1.4 20.6 21.7 13.1 22.8 5.8 119
Sample 6 1.5 22.2 22.3 12.8 21.3 6.2 119
Cutlass, No. 1 20 1.4 20.2 21.0 13.0 23.7 5.8 118
Forge, No. 1 19 1.6 23.9 23.3 12.2 19.4 6.1 119
Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Brown
No. 1 W. Canada 34 1.2 18.5 20.8 14.2 23.8 5.9 120
Saskatchewan 33 1.2 18.5 20.8 14.2 23.8 5.9 120
Alberta 1 1.3 16.6 21.8 14.6 24.3 6.1 122
No. 2 5 1.3 18.6 20.5 14.4 23.7 5.9 120
No. 3 1 1.3 16.8 21.9 14.7 23.9 6.2 122
No. 4 3 1.4 18.6 21.6 14.2 23.2 6.1 121
Sample 3 1.4 21.4 21.1 14.1 20.7 6.2 120
Centennial Br., No. 1 20 1.2 18.5 20.8 14.2 23.7 5.9 120

Total saturated fatty acids for Oriental and Brown Mustard, No.1 Canada composites were 6.0 and 5.9%, respectively, which was similar to last year’s values for both types at 6.0%. There were only small changes in the levels of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid. As a result, the iodine value (an indicator of oil unsaturation) was similar to 2015 values for both oriental and brown mustard at 119 and 120 units, respectively.

Chlorophyll content of oriental and brown mustard composites is provided in Table 4. Chlorophyll content was 2.9 and 6.5 mg/kg for Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada, respectively (Figure 6) which is significantly higher than the 7-year average of 1.9 and 3.4 mg/kg. The lower grades in both types had higher levels of chlorophyll, ranging from 2.4 to 16.8 mg/kg.

Figure 6, Oriental, Brown and Yellow Mustard, No.1 Canada
Chlorophyll content of harvest samples, 2009 to 2016

Chlorophyll content of Oriental, Brown and Yellow Mustard, No.1 Canada harvest samples, 2009 to 2016
  • Figure 6 details
    Chlorophyll content of harvest samples, 2009 to 2016
    Chlorophyll content 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2009-2015, mean
    Oriental, mg/kg 2.5 1.5 1.6 2.1 1.5 2.4 1.7 2.9 1.9
    Brown, mg/kg 3.6 4.7 3.2 2.5 2.8 2.9 4.4 6.5 3.4
    Yellow, mg/kg 1.1 0.8 0.6 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.8 1.2 0.8
Table 4, Chlorophyll Content and DGR in 2016 western Canadian mustard: Oriental and Brown
Category No. of samples Chlorophyll
mg/kg
Distinctly green
(%DGR)Footnote6
%DGR range
Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Oriental
No. 1 W. Canada 45 2.9 0.28 0.0-1.2
Saskatchewan 40 3.0 0.28 0.0-1.2
Alberta 5 2.2 0.28 0.0-1.0
No. 2 31 5.2 0.54 0.0-1.5
No. 3 15 10.1 1.71 0.0-2.6
No. 4 4 2.4 0.00 0.0
Sample 6 13.3 2.90 0.0-8.0
Cutlass, No. 1 20 3.6 - -
Forge, No. 1 19 2.8 - -
Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Brown
No. 1 W. Canada 34 6.5 0.14 0.0-0.8
Saskatchewan 33 6.7 0.14 0.0-0.8
Alberta 1 2.0 0.40 -
No. 2 5 7.0 0.72 0.0-2.0
No. 3 1 16.8 1.00 -
No. 4 3 8.2 0.33 0.0-1.0
Sample 3 13.6 0.40 0.0-1.2
Centennial Br., No. 1 20 5.7 - -
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